The highest crossover price seen in animals and you may plant life

One website name shines just like the a recombinational wilderness. Zero CO otherwise gene sales enjoy try seen during the an about eight hundred kb region close the 2 linked gender dedication family genes, csd and you may fem (Even more document step one: Shape S14). I suggest that, while the heterozygosity out-of csd identifies brand new sex away from honeybee [56,57] and you can diploid homozygotes is actually sterile people, gene sales within this website name is disadvantageous. Just like the gene transformation are relevant both having CO and NCO events, all the recombination is going to be abolished to prevent homogenization. An absence of recombination together with forces the 2 loci to do something as the a single haplotype.

Our very own effects stands in striking contrast so you’re able to an early report that found extremely highest CO pricing in the vicinity of brand new csd locus. A possible resolution of one’s inconsistent says is that while in the brand new instantaneous vicinity of your own genetics there’s absolutely no recombination, this is exactly counterbalanced from the strangely large rates throughout the spans proximal to the wasteland. Less quality research would discover the better rates about spans. In line with that it i to see a premier top of recombination from inside the the latest immediate area of your own plateau (A lot more document 1: Contour S14).


The data increase the sense that public hymenoptera has actually each other highest and you will very changeable crossing-over prices. Actually, the pace ranged between 0 and you will 197 cM/Mb whenever mentioned from inside the low-overlapping two hundred kb windows across the chromosomes (Figure step three, Figure S8 from inside the More file step 1 and you can Desk S6 into the Extra document dos), recommending the newest very uneven delivery of crossovers regarding genome. The fresh new figure out-of 37 cM/Mb, when you’re higher to possess dogs, continues to be below one to viewed for most fungus and you may protozoans, where costs over 60 cM/Mb try advertised . On the best of all of our degree, the new guess ways increased crossing-more than speed than just observed in people bush otherwise creature.

A decreased NCO gene conversion rate

While our study finds evidence consistent with several theoretical predictions, cause and effect are always hard to disentangle from correlation alone. For example, in principle the diversity/crossing-over coupling is also consistent with the notion that crossing over occurs preferentially in domains of high diversity and with the notion that crossing over is mutagenic . Similarly, the correlation between recombination rate and GC content is consistent with both the possibility that crossing over forces a high GC content and with the possibility that a high GC content favors increased crossing over. The conventional wisdom holds that recombination forces heteroduplexes within which mismatches require resolution. If this resolution is biased towards G and C residues (biased gene conversion), then a correlation between GC and recombination rate is expected . Previous analyses in honey bee have demonstrated fixation biases toward GC in high recombination parts of the genome . Evidence to support this direction for the causal arrow requires SNP analysis showing a bias to AT- > GC SNPs being fixed (or otherwise favored) compared to GC- > AT SNPs at sites of recombination. The key events here are most probably crossover-associated gene conversion events, but for these we cannot determine the direction of conversion and we are likely to be missing the majority of them. In our identified NCO events, if u is the number of AT > GC SNPs per A or T and v is the number of GC > AT SNPs per G or C, then the ratio of u/v is 1.06, which is slightly greater than the null (from stochastic simulations with 10,000 repeats: P <0.08). Being on the edge of significance, we cannot robustly say that NCO is or is not associated with GC-biased gene conversion.